In this review that explained applications of nano-electrocrystals as a drug delivery., Nanocrystals that are used to deliver medicinal drugs have gained importance in recent decades as a result of the development in nanomedicine where the resulting vesicle, which has a watery core surrounded by a hydrophobic membrane, can be loaded with a variety of hydrophobic or hydrophilic molecules for therapeutic purposes. Liposomes are usually synthesized with naturally occurring phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. Cholesterol is often included in the preparation to adjust film stiffness and increase its stability. The molecular load is induced by formation of liposomes in aqueous solution, solvent exchange mechanisms, or pH gradient methods. Different molecules can also be chemically coupled to the surface of the liposome to alter the recognition properties. One typical modification is the coupling of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the vesicle surface. The hydrophilic polymer prevents identification by macrophages and reduces filtration. Size, surface charge, and bilayer fluidity also alter the conduction kinetics of liposomes. The liposomes diffuse from the bloodstream into the interstitial space near the target site. Since the cell membrane itself is composed of phospholipids, liposomes can fuse directly with the membrane and release the charge into the cytosol, or they may enter the cell through phagocytosis or other active transport pathways.
Nagham Mahmood Aljamali, Aryaf Mahmood Sabea, Zainab H Al-zubaidy. Nano-electrocrystals in pharmaceutical drug delivery. Int. J. Mol. Biol. Biochem. 2022;4(1):26-32.