International Journal of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry

Vol. 4, Issue 2, Part A (2022)

Models of reproduction, development, and growth in invertebrates


Farhana S Ghory


Growing and producing offspring are inherent to all living organisms. The life cycle of an invertebrate species typically consists of four distinct stages: egg, larva, juvenile, and adult. In spite of this, there can be variations in this life cycle. Marine invertebrates are composed of microscopic, free-living dispersive stages, which may feed (planktotrophic) or not feed (lecithotrophic). This paper outlines a simple model to explain how reproductive patterns have evolved in marine benthic invertebrates.

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How to cite this article:
Farhana S Ghory. Models of reproduction, development, and growth in invertebrates. Int. J. Mol. Biol. Biochem. 2022;4(2):01-06. DOI: 10.33545/26646501.2022.v4.i2a.31
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