Farhana S Ghory
Growing and producing offspring are inherent to all living organisms. The life cycle of an invertebrate species typically consists of four distinct stages: egg, larva, juvenile, and adult. In spite of this, there can be variations in this life cycle. Marine invertebrates are composed of microscopic, free-living dispersive stages, which may feed (planktotrophic) or not feed (lecithotrophic). This paper outlines a simple model to explain how reproductive patterns have evolved in marine benthic invertebrates.
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