Dola Majumder and Deoraj Sharma
DNA damage has long been understood to play a causative role in the emergence of cancer. Cells go through a malignant transition that results in cancerous growth when incorrect DNA repair causes mutations or chromosomal abnormalities affecting oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Cancer can be caused by genetic abnormalities because some DNA repair mechanisms can be mutated to increase the vulnerability to different cancer forms. DNA damage, however, continues to be a key target for chemotherapy and radiation treatment in addition to being a primary contributor to the formation of cancer. Since the beginning of cancer therapy, genotoxic chemicals that set off DNA damage checkpoints have been used to slow the growth of cancer cells and cause them to undergo the apoptotic process that results in cell death. We give an outline of how DNA repair mechanisms contribute to the prevention of cancer.
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